July 4, 1863
The battle was over. The Army of Northern Virginia was marching south hoping to cross the Rappahannock to evade Meade's pursuit. A pursuit which never materialized because Meade believed the losses the Army of the Potomac suffered between July 1--3 were so severe that a pursuit would endanger his army. A disputed decision, but Meade was on the scene and he had first hand knowledge of the serious losses suffered by both armies. The number of casualties (51,000) was the largest of any battle in the Civil War. The wounded were still being gathered into field hospitals and the burial of the dead, Union and Confederate proceeded.
Captain William Lochren, Acting Adjutant General of the First Regiment, temporarily replaced Captain Joseph Periam, the mortally wounded commander of Company K. On this day he wrote a report on the losses suffered by Company K and sent it to the Winona Daily Republican.
In a Second Corps Field Hospital, Charles Goddard and Matthew Marvin, both wounded on July 2, also wrote accounts of the outcome of the battle. Goddard in a letter to his mother and Marvin in his diaries.
Back in Winona, a group of leading citizens enjoyed a holiday excursion to LaCrosse, which was described in the Winona Daily News.
In Questions you will find a series of questions which will help you to analyze and interpret this memorable day.